BASIC METALWORKING VOCABULARY

METALWORKING FLUIDS

Soluble Oils

Oil Content: 70-90%, plus other additives
Cleanliness: Tend to leave heavier oil residues on the machine tools (interior & exterior), work areas can be more dirty
Carry Off: Tend to have more carry off with the chips, consumption can be higher than other coolant products.
Lubricity: Depending on the formulation, they may have a very high amount of lubricity, capable or working on any metal.
Rust Protection: Usually good.
Bio-stability: Good
Foam: Depending on the formulation, they can be foamy, especially in RO and DI water.
Appearance When Diluted: Milk (may be dyed a color)
For Use In: Heavy Duty/Severe Applications

High Oil Micro Emulsions

Oil Content: 25-50%, plus other additives
Cleanliness: Tend to be very clean, depending on the formulation. These products bridge the gap between soluble oil lubricity and synthetic coolant cleanliness.
Carry Off: Tend to have far less carry off with the chips. Consumption rates can be 20-50% less than some soluble oils.
Lubricity: Depending on the formulation, they may have a very high amount of lubricity, capable or working on any metal.
Rust Protection: Usually very good.
Bio-stability: Good to Excellent
Foam: Depending on the formulation, they can be very low foaming, even in high pressure systems and in RO and DI water.
Appearance When Diluted: Milk (may be dyed a color)
For Use In: Heavy Duty/ Severe Applications

Semi-Synthetics

Oil Content: 5-20%, plus other additives
Cleanliness: Tend to be very clean, depending on the formulation.
Carry Off: Tend to have far less carry off with the chips. Consumption rates can be 20-50% less than some soluble oils.
Lubricity: Depending on the formulation, they may have a moderate to high amount of lubricity, capable or working on almost any metal.
Rust Protection: Usually good to excellent.
Bio-stability: very good to excellent
Foam: Depending on the formulation, they can be low foaming, even in high pressure systems and in RO and DI water.
Appearance When Diluted: Clear or Milky (may be dyed a color)
For Use In: Light Duty to Moderately Severe Applications

Synthetics

Oil Content: Usually 0%, other additives present
Cleanliness: Tend to leave almost no residue.
Carry Off: Tend to have very little carry off with chips.
Lubricity: Depending on the formulation, they may have a fairly high amount of lubricity, capable or working on most metals.
Rust Protection: Usually excellent.
Bio-stability: Excellent
Foam: Depending on the formulation, they tend to be extremely low foaming. This makes them preferable in some grinding applications.
Appearance When Diluted: Like Water (may be dyed a color)
For Use In: Light Duty to some More Severe Applications

METALS

Ferrous Metals

This family of metals includes cast iron, carbon steels, tools steels, and stainless steels. The important issues to keep in mind with this group of metals (especially cast iron and carbon steels) are rust and cleanliness. The right coolant choice for the application will greatly enhance the metal removal/ forming application.

Non-Ferrous Metals

This family of metals is often referred to as yellow metals. Includes copper, brass, bronze, aluminum, and many of the alloys associated with these metals. Important issue to keep in mind with these materials is staining. Certain lubricity additives, especially sulfur, can severely stain or pit these metals. Testing prior to production is an important step.

Carbide

This segment of metallurgy is important because many of the machine tooling is made from carbide, or is carbide coated. During the manufacture and re-sharpening of this tooling, improper coolant selection will lead to cobalt leaching. Cobalt is the “chocolate chip” in a chocolate chip cookie. If you remove it, the tool will crumble and tool life will suffer dramatically. The most important issue to keep in mind are the severe health effects associated with workers exposed to free cobalt in a coolant system. Proper coolant selection is a MUST!

WATER SOURCES

RO Water (Reverse Osmosis)

This process removes almost all of the hard water ions and minerals (almost 100% pure). It is considered to be the “best” of the water sources. It is preferred when mixing certain chiller fluids. Tends to be overkill for most coolant applications and a lot more expensive than DI water to make. Can cause excessive foam for some coolant formulations.

DI Water (De-ionized Water)

Cationic and Anionic tanks are utilized to remove almost all of the hard water ions and minerals (about 90-95% pure). It is considered to be the best source of water for coolants as it is relatively inexpensive to use. The coolant/ tool life/ rust protection is greatly enhanced as the coolant additives no longer have to fight with the hard water ions and minerals. Can cause excessive foam for some coolant formulations.

Tap/City Water

Can very in hardness depending on the city and the location geographically. Samples have to be taken prior to testing a coolant. This can have a direct impact on the type of coolant to be chosen. Sometimes the water can be of sufficient quality as to forgo a RO or DI water system.

Well Water

Often the worst water of choice for metalworking fluids. This water tends to contain excessive amounts of hard water ions and dissolved minerals. The rust protection, lubricity, and bio-stability of the diluted metalworking fluid can suffer.

CGF Techical Sheets

Technical sheets are available for the full line of CGF products.

Click here to request technical sheet(s).